Gerald P Murphy masthead

Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer—Animal and Cellular Models

Chiang EC, Bostwick DG, Waters DJ. Homeostatic housecleaning effect of selenium: Evidence that noncytotoxic oxidant-induced damage sensitizes prostate cancer cells to organic selenium-triggered apoptosis. Biofactors 2013; 39(5):575-588.

Waters DJ, Shen S, Kengeri SS, Chiang EC, Combs GF Jr, Morris JS, Bostwick DG. Prostatic response to supranutritional selenium supplementation: Comparison of the target tissue potency of selenomethionine vs. selenium-yeast on markers of prostatic homeostasis. Nutrients 2012; 4(11)1650-1663.

Chiang EC, Shen S, Kengeri SS, Xu H, Combs GF Jr., Morris SJ, Bostwick DG, Waters DJ. Defining the optimal selenium dose for prostate cancer risk reduction: Insights from the U-shaped relationship between selenium status, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Dose-Response 2009; 8(3):285-300.

Waters DJ, Shen S, Glickman LT, Cooley DM, Bostwick DG, Qian J, Combs GF Jr, Morris JS. Prostate cancer risk and DNA damage: translational significance of selenium supplementation in a canine model. Carcinogenesis 2005; 26(7):1256-1262.

Bostwick DG, Burke HB, Djakiew D, Euling S, Ho SM, Landolph J, Morrison H, Sonawane B, Shifflett T, Waters DJ, Timms B. Human prostate cancer risk factors. Cancer 2004; 101(10 Suppl):2371-2490.

Cornell KK, Bostwick DG, Cooley DM, Hall G, Harvey HJ, Hendrick MJ, Pauli BU, Render JA, Stoica G, Sweet D, Waters DJ. Clinical and pathologic aspects of spontaneous canine prostate carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 76 cases. Prostate 2000; 45:173-183.

Waters DJ. High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in dogs. Eur Urol 1999; 35:456-458.

Hayden DW, Klausner JS, Waters DJ. Prostatic leiomyosarcoma in a dog: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings. J Vet Diag Invest 1999; 11:283-286.

Waters DJ, Sakr WA, Hayden DW, Lang CM, McKinney L, Murphy GP , Radinsky R, Ramoner R, Richardson RC, Tindall DJ. Workgroup 4: Spontaneous prostate carcinoma in dogs and nonhuman primates. Prostate 1998; 36:64-67.

Waters DJ, Bostwick DG, Murphy GP. Conference summary: First International Workshop on Animal Models of Prostate Cancer. Prostate 1998; 36(1):47-48.

Aquilina JW, McKinney L, Pacelli A, Richman LK, Waters DJ, Thompson I, Burghardt Jr. WF, Bostwick DG. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in military working dogs with and without prostate cancer. Prostate 1998; 36:189-193.

Waters DJ, Bostwick DG. The canine prostate is a spontaneous model of intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer progression. Anticancer Res 1997; 17:1467-1470.

Waters DJ, Hayden DW, Bell FW, Klausner JS, Qian J, Bostwick DG. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in dogs with spontaneous prostate cancer. Prostate 1997; 30:2-97.

Waters DJ and Bostwick DG. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia occurs spontaneously in the canine prostate. J Urol 1997; 157:713-716.

Waters DJ, Janovitz EB, Chan TCK. Spontaneous metastasis of PC-3 cells in athymic mice after implantation in orthotopic or ectopic microenvironments. Prostate 1995; 26:227-234.

PKadohama N, Wakisaka M, Karr JP, Murphy GP, Sandberg A. Retardation of prostatic tumor progression in the Noble rat by 4-methyl-4aza-steroidal inhibitors of 5α -reductase. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 74(2):475-486.

Horoszewicz JS, Leong SS, Kawinski E, Karr JP, Rosenthal H, Chu TM, Mirand EA, Murphy GP. LNCaP model of human prostatic carcinoma. Cancer Res 1983; 43(4):1809-1818.

Muntzing J, Kirdani RY, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA. A rat prostatic adenocarcinoma as a model for the human disease. Invest Urol 1979; 17(1):37-41.

Muntzing J, Murphy GP. Study on the growth limiting mechanisms in the rat ventral prostate. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1977; 154(3):331-336.

Varkarakis MJ, Kirdani RY, Abramczyk J, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA. Effects of castration, androgens, and estrogens on steroid levels in the dog prostate. Invest Urol 1973; 11(2):106-113.

Schoonees R, Reynoso G, Murphy GP. The effect of androgen on canine prostatic secretion. J Surg Oncol 1972; 4(3):169-179.

Prostate Cancer—Biology

Bostwick DG, Waters DJ, Farley ER, Meiers I, Rukstalis D, Cavanaugh WA, Ragde H, Dineen MK, Bahn D, Scionti S, Babian R, Ellis DS, Rewcastle JC, Burke HB, Andriole GL, Onik G, Barqawi AE, Maksem J, Barzell WE. Group consensus reports from the Consensus Conference on Focal Treatment of Prostatic Carcinoma, Celebration, Florida, February 24, 2006. Urology 2007; 70(6 Suppl): 42-44.

Meiers I, Waters DJ, Bostwick DG. Preoperative prediction of multifocal prostate cancer and application of focal therapy. Urology 2007;70 (6 Suppl): 3-8.

Waters DJ, Shen S, Xu H, Kengeri SS, Cooley DM, Chiang EC, Chen Y, Schlittler D, Oteham C, Combs GF Jr, Glickman LT, Morris JS, Bostwick DG. Noninvasive prediction of prostatic DNA damage by oxidative stress challenge of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 1906-1910.

Walker-Daniels J, Coffman K, Azimi M, Rhim JS, Bostwick DG, Snyder P, Kerns BJ, Waters DJ, Kinch MS. Overexpression of the EphA2 tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer. Prostate 1999; 41:275-280.

Drachenberg DE, Elgamal A-A A, Rowbotham R, Peterson M, Murphy GP. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Prostate 1999; 41:127-133.

Helpap B, Bonkhoff H, Cockett A, Montironi R, Troncoso P, Waters DJ, Bostwick DG. Relationship between atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Pathologica 1997; 89:288-300.

Mettlin CJ, Murphy GP, Cunningham MP, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on race, age, and region variations in prostate cancer treatment. Cancer 1997; 80(7):1261-1266.

Montironi R, Bostwick DG, Bonkhoff H, Cockett A, Helpap B, Troncoso P, Waters DJ. Origins of prostate cancer. Cancer 1996; 78:362-365.

Murphy GP, von Eschenbach A, Bostwick DG. International consultation on prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pathologic staging of prostatic carcinoma. Cancer 1996; 78(2):324-325.

Bostwick DG, Graham SD, Napalkov P, Abrahamsson PA, Di Sant’Agnese PA, Algaba F, Hoisaeter PA, Lee F, Littrup P, Mostofi FK, Denis L, Schroeder F, Murphy GP. Staging of early prostate cancer: a proposed tumor volume-based prognostic index. Urology 1993; 41(5):403-411.

Mettlin C, Murphy GP, Menck H. Trends in treatment of localized prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy: observations from the Commission on Cancer National Cancer Data Base, 1985-1990. Urology 1993; 43(4):488-492.

Horoszewicz JS, Murphy GP. Prospective new developments in laboratory research and clinical trials in prostate cancer. Cancer 1990; 66(5):1083-1085.

Huben R, Matarajan N, Pontes E, Mettlin C, Smart CR, Murphy GP. Carcinoma of the prostate in men less than 50 years old: data from American College of Surgeons’ National Survey. Urology 1982; 20(6):585-588.

Gaeta JF, Asirwatham JE, Miller G, Murphy GP. Histologic grading of primary prostatic cancer: a new approach to an old problem. J Urol 1979; 123(5):689-693.

Madajewicz S, Wajsman Z, Slack N, Mittelman A, Murphy GP. Insulin-induced growth hormone responses in patients with prostatic carcinoma. Urology 1979; 13(5)490-493.

Varkarakis MJ, Winterberger AR, Gaeta J, Moore RH, Murphy GP. Lung metastases in prostatic carcinoma: clinical significance. Urology 1974; 3(4):447-452.

Murphy GP, Bradley J. Primary sarcoma of the prostate. J Urol 1961; 85(6):973-976.

Prostate Cancer—Chemotherapy

Schmidt JD, Gibbons RP, Murphy GP, Bartolucci A, Investigators of the National Prostate Cancer Project. Evaluation of adjuvant estramustine phosphate, cyclophosphamide and observation only for node-positive patients following radical prostatectomy and definitive irradiation. Prostate 1996; 28:51-57.

Soloway MS, Beckly S, Brady MF, Chu TM, deKernion JB, Dhabuwala C, Gaeta JR, Gibbons RP, Loening SA, McKiel CF, McLeod DG, JM, Pontes JE, Prout GR, Scardino PT, Schlegel JU, Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Slack NH, Murphy GP. A comparison of estramustine phosphate versus cis-platinum alone versus estramustine phosphate plus cis-platinum in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer who had extensive irradiation to the pelvis or lumbosacral area. J Urol 1983; 129(1):56-61.

Murphy GP, Beckly S, Brady MF, Chu TM, deKernion JB, McKiel CF, McLeod DG, Pontes JE, Prout GR, Scardino PT, Schlegel JU, Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Slack NH, Soloway MS. Treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer patients with chemotherapy agents in combination with hormones versus hormones alone. Cancer 1983; 51(7):1264-1272.

Gibbons RP, Beckly S, Brady MF, Chu TM, deKernion JB, Dhabuwala C, Gaeta JF, Loening SA, McKiel CF, McLeod DG, Pontes JE, Prout GR, Scardino PT, Schlegel JU, Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Slack HS, Soloway MS, Murphy GP. The addition of chemotherapy to hormonal therapy for treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. J Surg Oncol 1983; 23(2):133-142.

Beckly S, Wajsman Z, Maeso E, Pontes JE, Murphy GP. Estramustine phosphate with multiple cytotoxic agents in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. Urology 1981; 18(6):592-595.

Johnson DE, Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Rout GR, Schmidt JD, Chu TM, Gaeta J, Saroff J, Murphy GP. National randomized study of chemotherapeutic agents in advanced prostatic carcinoma: a progress report. Cancer Treatment Reports 1977; 61(2):317-323.

Catane R, Kaufman J, Mittelman A, Murphy GP. Disappearance of osteoblastic metastases in prostatic carcinoma following Estracyt therapy. J Am Med Assoc 1977; 237(23):2471.

Gibbons RP, Scott WW, Johnson DE, Prout GR, Schmidt JD, Murphy GP. Prostatic carcinoma: Relationship between primary tumor, histologic grade and response to chemotherapy. Urology 1976; 8(3):222-226.

Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Prout GR, Schmidt JD, Saroff J, Murphy GP . The continued evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy in patients with advanced carcinoma \ of the prostate. J Urol 1976; 116:211-213.

Scott WW, Johnson DE, Schmidt JE, Gibbons RP, Joiner JR, Saroff J, Murphy GP. Chemotherapy of advanced prostatic carcinoma with cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil: results of first national randomized study. J Urol 1975; 114(6):909-911.

Prostate Cancer—Early Detection

Pvon Eschenbach A, Ho R, Murphy GP, Cunningham M, Lins N. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of prostate cancer. Cancer 1997; 80(9):1805-1809.

Mettlin C, Murphy GP, Babaian RJ, Chesley A, Kane RA, Littrup PJ, Mostofi FK, Ray PS, Shanberg AM, Toi A. The results of a five year early prostate cancer detection intervention. Investigators of the American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. Cancer 1996; 77(1):150-159.

Denis LJ, Murphy GP, Schröder FH. Report of the consensus workshop on screening and global strategy for prostate cancer. Cancer 1995; 75(5):1187-1207.

Littrup PJ, Kane RA, Mettlin CJ, Murphy GP, Lee F, Toi A, Badalament R, Babaian R. Cost-effective prostate cancer detection: reduction of low-yield biopsies. Cancer 1994; 74(12):3146-3158.

Mettlin C, Murphy GP, Lee F, Littrup P, Chesley A, Babaian R, Badalament R, Kane RA, Mostofi FK, Investigators of the ACS-NPCDP. Characteristics of prostate cancers detected in a multimodality early detection program. Cancer 1993; 72(5):1701-1708.

Mettlin C, Lee F, Drago J, Murphy GP. Findings on the detection of early prostate cancer in 2425 men. Cancer 1991; 67(12):2949-2958.

Prostate Cancer—Endocrine Treatment

Douglas TH, Connelly RR, McLeod DG, Erickson SJ, Barren R, Murphy GP. The effect of exogenous testosterone replacement on prostate specific antigen and prostate specific membrane antigen levels in hypogonadal men. J Surg Oncol 1995; 59:246-250.

Denis L, Murphy GP. Overview of phase III trials on combined androgen treatment in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer 1993; 72(12):3888-3895.

Murphy GP, Creco JM, Chin JL, Huben RP, Scott M, deHaan HA. Zoladex (ICI 118, 630): clinical trials of a new lutenizing hormone-releasing hormone analog in metastatic prostatic carcinoma. Urology 1987; 29(2):185-190.

Murphy GP, Slack NH. The questionable use of hormone therapy in advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Urologic Clinics N Am 1980; 7(3):631-638.

Merrin C, Murphy GP, Chu TM, Mittelman A. Carcinoma of the prostate: long-term survival after bilateral adrenalectomy. Urology 1974; 3(2):223-225.

West CR, Murphy GP. Pituitary ablation and disseminated prostatic carcinoma. J Am Med Assoc 1973; 225(3): 253-256.

Murphy GP, Reynoso G, Schoonees R, Gailani S, Bourke R, Kenny GM, Mirand EA, Schalch DS. Hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy for disseminated prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 1971; 195:817-825.

Murphy GP, Boctor ZN, Gailani S, Belmusto L. Hypophysectomy for disseminated prostatic carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 1969; 1(1):81-95.

Prostate Cancer—Imaging

Murphy GP, Elgamal A.-A A, Troychak MJ, Kenny GM. Follow-up ProstaScint â scans verify detection of occult soft tissue recurrence after failure of primary prostate cancer therapy. Prostate 2000; 42:315-317.

Elgamal A-A A, Troychak MJ, Murphy GP. ProstaScint® scan may enhance identification of prostate cancer recurrences after prostatectomy, radiation, or hormone therapy: analysis of 136 scans of 100 patients. Prostate 1998; 37:261-269.

Wynant GE, Murphy GP, Horoszewicz, JS, Neal CE, Collier BD, Mitchell E, Purnell G, Tyson I, Abdel-Nabi H, Winzelberg G. Immunoscintigraphy of prostatic cancer: preliminary results with 111In labeled monoclonal antibody 7E11-C5.3 (CYT-356). Prostate 1991; 18(3):229-241.

Prostate Cancer—Immunotherapy

Murphy GP, Tjoa BA, Simmons SJ, Rogers MK, Kenny GM, Jarisch, J. Higher dose and less frequent dendritic cell infusions with PSMA peptides in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 2000; 43(1):59-62.

Murphy GP, Tjoa BA, Simmons SJ, Ragde H, Rogers M, Elgamal A, Kenny GM, Troychak MJ, Salgaller ML, Boynton AL. Phase II prostate cancer vaccine trial: report of a study involving 37 patients with disease recurrence following primary treatment. Prostate 1999; 39(1):54-59.

Tjoa BA, Simmons SJ, Bowes VA, Ragde H, Rogers M, Elgamal A, Kenny GM, Cobb OE, Ireton RC, Troychak MJ, Salgaller ML, Boynton AL, Murphy GP. Evaluation of phase I/II clinical trials in prostate cancer with dendritic cells and PSMA peptides. Prostate 1998; 36(1):39-44.

Murphy GP, Maguire RT, Rogers B, Partin AW, Nelp WB, Troychak MJ, Ragde H, Kenny GM, Barren RJ, Bowes VA, Gregorakis AK, Holmes EH, Boynton A.L. Comparison of serum PSMA, PSA levels with results of cytogen-356 Prostascint scanning in prostatic cancer patients. Prostate 1997; 33(4):281-285.

Tjoa BA, Erickson SJ, Bowes VA, Ragde H, Kenny GM, Cobb OE, Ireton RC, Troychak MJ, Boynton AL, Murphy GP. Follow-up evaluation of prostate cancer patients infused with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with PSMA peptides. Prostate 1997; 32(4):272-278.

Tjoa B, Boynton A, Kenny G, Ragde H, Misrock SL, Murphy GP. Presentation of prostate tumor antigens by dendritic cells stimulates T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Prostate 1996; 28(1):65-69.

Murphy GP, Tjoa B, Ragde H, Kenny G, Boynton A. Phase I clinical trial: T cell therapy of prostate cancer using autologous dendritic cells pulsed with HLA-A0201-specific peptides from prostate-specific membrane antigen. Prostate 1996; 29:371-380.

Tjoa B, Erickson S, Barren R, Ragde H, Kenny G, Boynton A, Murphy GP. In vitro propagated dendritic cells from prostate cancer patients as a component of prostate cancer immunotherapy. Prostate 1995; 27(2):63-69.

PSA (Prostate-specific Antigen)

Preston DM, Levin LI, Jacobson DJ, Jacobsen SJ, Rubertone M, Holmes E, Murphy GP, Moul JW. Prostate-specific antigen levels in young white and black men age 20 to 45 years old. Urology 2000; 56(5):812-816.

Mettlin CJ, Chesley AE, Murphy GP, Bartsch G, Toi A, Bahnson R, Church P. The association of free PSA percent, total PSA, age, and gland volume in the detection of prostate cancer. Prostate 1999; 39:153-158.

Morgan TO, McLeod DG, Leifer ES, Murphy GP, Moul JW. Prospective use of free prostate-specific antigen to avoid repeat prostate biopsies in men with elevated total prostate-specific antigen. Urology 1996; 48(6A):76-80.

Murphy GP. The Second Stanford Conference on International Standardization of Prostate Specific Antigen Assays. Cancer 1995; 75(1):122-128.

Mettlin C, Littrup PJ, Kane RA, Murphy GP, Lee F, Chesley A, Badalament R, Mostofi FK. Relative sensitivity and specificity of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level compared with age-referenced PSA, PSA density and PSA change: data from the American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. Cancer 1994; 74(5):1615-1620.

Hutter R, Murphy GP. American Cancer Society workshop on PSA: benefits and limitations. Cancer 1993; 71(8):2677-2683.

Kane RA, Littrup PJ, Babaian R, Drago JR, Lee F, Chesley A, Murphy GP, Mettlin C, Investigators of the ACS-NPCDP. PSA levels in 1,695 men without evidence of prostate cancer: findings from the American Cancer Society- National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. Cancer 1992; 69(5):l201-1207.

Babaian RJ, Mettlin C, Kane R, Murphy GP, Lee F, Drago JR, Chesley A, Investigators of the American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. The relationship of prostate-specific antigen to digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography: findings of the American Cancer Society-National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. Cancer 1992; 69(5):1195-1200.

Killian CS, Yang N, Kuriyama M, Vargas FP, Emrich LJ, Slack NH, Wang MD, Papsidero LD, Murphy GP, Chu TM, and the investigators of the National Prostatic Cancer Project. Prognostic importance of prostate-specific antigen for monitoring patients with B 2 to D 1 prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1985; 45:866-891

Killian CS, Emrich LJ, Vargas FP, Yang N, Wang MC, Priore RL, Murphy GP, Chu TM. Relative reliability of five serially measured markers for prognosis of progression in prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986; 76(2):179-185.

Kuriyama M, Wang MC, Lee CL, Killian CS, Papsidero LD, Inaji H, Loor RM, Lin MF, Nishiura T, Slack NH, Murphy GP, Chu TM. Multiple marker evaluation in prostate cancer using tissue specific antigens. J Natl Cancer Inst 1982; 68(1):99-105.

Pontes JE, Chu TM, Slack N, Karr J, Murphy GP. Serum prostatic antigen measurement in localized prostatic cancer: correlation with clinical course. J Urol 1982; 128(6):1216-1218.

Kuriyama M, Wang MC, Lee CL, Papsidero LD, Killian CS, Inaji H, Slack NH, Nishiura T, Murphy GP, Chu TM. Use of human prostate-specific antigen in monitoring prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1981; 41(10):3874-3876.

PWang MC, Valenzuela LA, Murphy GP, Chu TM. Purification of a human prostate specific antigen. Invest Urol 1979; 17(2):159-163.

PSMA (Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen)

Bostwick DG, Pacelli A, Blute M, Roche P, Murphy GP. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: study of 184 cases. Cancer 1998; 82(11):2256-2261.

Murphy GP, Barren RJ, Erickson SJ, Bowes VA, Wolfert RL, Bartsch G, Klocker H, Pointner J, Reissigl A, McLeod DG, Douglas T, Morgan T, Kenny GM, Ragde H, Boynton AL, Holmes EH. Evaluation and comparison of two new prostatic cancer markers: free PSA (f-PSA) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Cancer 1996; 78(4):809-818.

Murphy GP, Holmes EH, Boynton AL, Kenny GM, Ostenson RC, Erickson SJ, Barren RJ. A comparison of prostate specific antigen, prostate specific membrane antigen, and LNCaP based elisa assays in prostatic cancer patients and patients with benign prostatic enlargement. Prostate 1995; 26(4):164-168.

Rochon YP, Horoszewicz JS, Boynton AL, Holmes EH, Barren RJ, Erickson SJ, Kenny GM, Murphy GP. Western blot assay for prostate specific membrane antigen in serum of prostate cancer patients. Prostate 1994; 25:219-223.

Prostate Cancer—Other Markers

Kim J, Palmer JL, Finn L, Hodges S, Bowes V, Deftos L, Murphy GP, Logothetis C. The pattern of serum markers in select patients with androgen-independent adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Urologic Oncology 2000; 5:97-103.

Barren RJ, Holmes EH, Boynton AL, Grigorakis A, Cobb OE, Wilson CL, Ragde H, Murphy GP. A method for identifying prostate cells in semen using flow cytometry. Prostate 1998; 36(3):181-188.

El-Shirbiny A, Bhargava A, Beckly S, Fitzpatrick J, Murphy GP. Comparison of immunologic and enzymatic assay of prostatic acid phosphatase for follow-up and assessment of clinical status of Stage D prostate cancer. J Surg Oncol 1984; 26(4):256-259.

Murphy GP, Reynoso G, Kenny GM, Gaeta JF. Comparison of total and prostatic fraction serum acid phosphate levels in patients with differentiated and undifferentiated prostatic carcinoma. Cancer 1969; 23(6):1309-1314.

Prostate—Non-Cancerous Diseases

Bostwick DG, Cooner WH, Denis L, Jones GW, Scardino PT Murphy GP. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate. Cancer 1992; 70(1):291-301.

Karr JP, Kim U, Resko JA, Schneider S, Chai LS, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA. Introduction of benign prostatic hypertrophy in baboons. Urology 1984; 23(3):276-289.